The 29-year-old made her final appearance for the Matildas against Scotland in Falkirk last Thursday.
The match, with her grandfather in attendance, was a fitting swansong for the Glasgow-born McCallum.
She called time on her career when acknowledging she would be unable to return to her prime because of knee problems.
The wear and tear on her knee prevented McCallum from making more appearances.
�It has been a great honour and privilege to represent my country for the last 10 years,� she said. �Unfortunately, my body cannot deal with the intensity and load required to play at this level anymore.
�I have pushed my knees as far as they can go and I am content with my decision to hang up the boots.�
�Although it is disappointing to miss the World Cup, I feel that I have been fortunate enough to experience two previous campaigns, of which the memories will never leave me.
�The team we have now is looking strong and preparing really well, and I�m looking forward to watching them compete against the best in June.
�There are countless people I�d like to thank in respect to my Matildas career: coaches, medical staff, family, friends and especially my partner Ricky for supporting me to pursue my love for the game.�
Matildas coach Alen Stajcic said he could not speak highly enough of McCallum, and what she had brought to Australian women�s football.
Career highlights include making the FIFA All-star squad, playing in Australia�s Women�s Asia Cup 2010 and in the FIFA 2011 Women�s World Cup.
She made 80 appearances for Australia and scored 11 goals in an international career spanning a decade. She was also vital in helping Perth Glory finish top of the table last season.